Islam established lenient dating rules
The government tends to decide the legality of actions based on the Islamic law or on the basis of whether or not it will lead people away from Islam. To successfully teach abroad in Saudi Arabia , you'll need to learn to read between the lines and pay attention to local customs everywhere you go. Sometimes, learning what you should NOT do is more important than learning what you can do, in order to avoid cultural mishaps, offending locals, or worse. Here are a few of the most important things banned in Saudi Arabia that you should definitely be aware of before arrival: Women in Saudi Arabia are generally not allowed to travel alone or without an electronic authorization, until they reach the age of
Islam established lenient dating rules
Data sharing is not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analyzed during the current study. Islam is the dominant religion in about 56 countries around the globe, and has more than 1. At the dawn of its historical course and at its moral and ethical core, Islam introduced many interesting and innovative beliefs concerning the mentally ill. Islam underlines the moral necessity for the protection and care of the vulnerable individuals, as dictated by God himself.
This strange admixture is reflected upon the status of the mental health services and corresponding legislation found in the different countries of the Islamic world. Islam is a monotheistic religion, and its founder is the prophet Muhammad, who was born in A. Due to the fear of political prosecution he moved from Mecca to Medina in A. In Medina, he founded the first community of his followers. The followers of Islam are called Muslims and they believe that the orders of their religion apply in every field of their life and they represent a complete life model [ 2 ].
Muslims are the majority in 56 countries, and it is estimated that they represent the one-fifth of the world population more than 1. D through the need for social reorganization, which should be based in the concept of solidarity and sympathy against the corrupted governing of Umayyad — A. Among these, Saudi Arabia applies its purest form. An interesting phenomenon, mainly resulting from the colonization of different parts of the globe by Western countries, is the coexistence within the same legal ambit of both secular and Islamic law [ 8 ].
In the beginning, the colonizing countries showed no interest in interfering or altering the local customary and tribal laws, unless they hindered their economic goals and expansionism [ 9 ]. But later in an effort to expand the implementation of their law on the indigenous populations, they tried to incorporate the customary—religious laws in a comprehensive legal system by three main methods: Nigeria, a former British colony which became an independent federation in , is a typical example of such a state.
The northern part of the country is inhabited mostly by Muslims, while in the southern part the majority of the population is Christian. In the south, the legal system is based on the Anglo-Saxon common law, while in the north, a dual judicial system, consisting of both common and Islamic law, is applied [ 11 ]. Unfortunately, the country is devastated by clashes, fueled by religious hatred.
As far as other issues are concerned, the common law is applied [ 12 ]. Dual judicial systems can be found even in EU member states. For almost one century, in the north-east area of Greece called Thrace, the Muslim citizens have the right to settle their legal matters, apart from the Greek civil courts, with the help of Islamic judges, the muftis [ 13 ]. The scripts of the Islamic law are [ 15 ]:. The length of the Suwar is uneven, with the shortest one Al-Kawthar containing only three verses while the longest Al-Baqara has verses.
The Suwar are divided into Meccan 87 or Medinan 27 , depending on the location of revelation, that is before or after Hijra [ 16 ]. Some of these lines-commands have a direct and specific meaning, while others have a vaguer context. Ijtihad, practiced by the legal scholars of Islam, is based on strictly defined orders which are sources of law as well [ 17 ]. The most important of them are: From these scripts, the most important and highly accepted ones are called Sunnah.
There are six recognized collections of Sunnah, which were written in the ninth and tenth century A. D, during the Sahih period [ 3 ]. With historical evolution, different prominent Islamic legal scholars developed different models of interpreting and applying the divine law, as depicted from the sacred scripts. The three basic trends for explaining the mental disorder, from antiquity till today, are [ 19 , 20 ]: These three components in the Islamic world are in a dynamic and ever changing balance.
A balance between prejudice and social stigmatization on one hand and intense religious and moral commitment to support the weak on the other. The Islamic world, in its early years, had a pioneering approach concerning mental health and psychiatry. The first psychiatric hospitals were founded in Arabic countries [ 21 , 22 ]: Baghdad A. D, and Damascus A. D, whereas the first psychiatric asylum in the West Europe, the Bethlem Hospital in London, was founded in the thirteenth century [ 23 ].
Important figures of the Arabic medicine are Razis — A. D and Avicennas — A. They have rich authoritative work as for example the Kitab al-Hawi and the Al-Qanun fi al-tibb, which are multivolume medical books. They fought off superstition, which had already dominated the Christian world [ 25 ]; they adopted the Hippocratic organic psychiatry and they applied psychological methods of therapy [ 1 ]. Currently, there are more than 50 Islamic states, and therefore, it is difficult to simply describe the mental health services in these countries.
Some of them provide advanced therapies [ 26 ], and they have a modern legal framework Sudan , Jordan , Oman , while in some others, the therapy of the psychiatric patients includes cautery, exorcism, and physical violence [ 1 , 3 ]. They do not have specialized training in forensic psychiatry and do not possess organized forensic psychiatric services [ 24 ]. The notion that mental disorder has a daemonological or divine origin is widespread in the Islamic world [ 1 , 27 , 28 ].
The social impact and influence of these therapists is so important that in some countries they have are incorporated in the national health care system [ 29 ]. Under the Islamic law, the therapeutic bond between a patient and a doctor is considered sacred. Some Islamic legal scholars argue that lying into a court in order to preserve the confidentiality of the therapeutic relationship cannot be considered a sin [ 2 ]. In any case, in Muslim trials, only the views and the opinions of Muslim psychiatrists are accepted [ 3 ].
Despite the importance that the Islamic law attributes to the confidentiality of the therapeutic bond, it is overridden in cases of suicide attempts [ 2 ]. Suicide is considered a very big sin, a type of homicide. Muslim religion strictly forbids it and the divine law considers suicide a very big crime [ 31 ]. Direct consequences of this perception are the scarce recording of suicide attempts as such, since this could lead to the prosecution of the patient, and also that the rates of suicide and attempted suicides cannot be reliably estimated in Muslim countries [ 1 , 23 ].
Apart from suicide, other forbidden actions similarly to Judaism and Christianity include homosexuality, extramarital affairs, prostitution, and unlike Judaism and Christianity alcohol consumption [ 32 ]. The concept of mens rea , the guilty intention, is fully accepted in the Islamic law. There is no crime if there is no criminal intention. There is also a third category which applies only in cases of homicide: All homicidal acts are punishable by death.
On the contrary, if the family does not accept the compensation, then the judicial system cannot override this decision. The demonological apprehension of mental disorder can be traced in many cultural settings: There is tripartite classification of insanity in the Islamic law: In the case of intermittent insanity, it has to be proven that the mental disorder was active at the time of the criminal act for the defendant to be found not guilty by reason of insanity.
Otherwise, if the disorder was in remission and not active, the perpetrator is fully responsible for his acts [ 17 ]. As far as criminal responsibility is concerned, the Islamic law recognizes two other categories, similar to insanity: A pivotal issue addressed in the Islamic law, lying in the interface between law and psychiatry, is the concept of involuntary admission of mental health patients.
The corresponding legislation in the European Union countries is not homogenous: Only three EU countries use exclusively the criterion of the need for therapy: Italy, Spain, and Sweden [ 39 ]. Since the Greek civilization laid the foundation of the Western scientific thought, it is important to underline some of the similarities between Islam and ancient Greek medical and legal tradition. As mentioned before, in the early years of Islam, the social attitude towards mental patients was that of compassionate care.
These doctrines emphasized the rational and scientific explanation of mental disorders, based on the Hippocratic humoral theory, thus preventing theology, superstitious, and demonology to easily infiltrate the domain of mental health [ 40 ]. The relationship between science, rational thought, and anthropocentric perception of the physical phenomena on one hand and superstitious, moralistic, and theological apprehension of the world on the other is characterized by a diachronic struggle for domination.
This struggle affects all aspects of human civilization, including the laws. As we have seen in Islam, the laws are of divine origin and thus cannot be altered. We can trace a similar perception in many archaic societies, including ancient Greece [ 41 ], at least until the fifth century B. The name Retra , according to Lidell and Scott [ 43 ], means the agreement between the one who sets God Apollo and the one who accepts the laws Lycurgus , while according to Plutarch [ 44 ], it is an oral declaration with divine origin.
Besides their divine origin, there are other similarities between ancient Greek and Islamic law: The legal tradition of blood wit can be traced back to the pre-Homeric era. In front of the Agora of the city, where the most respected citizens consulted the king [ 49 ], the adverse parties presented their arguments about whether the bloodwit was paid or not. In another part of Iliad 9th rhapsody, verses — , Ajax prompts Achilles to accept the compensation that Agamemnon offers him and in this way to forgive the insult of the abduction of his mistress Briseis.
From a forensic psychiatric point of view, an important historical question arises: According to Simon and Ahn-Redding [ 50 ], the theoretical foundations for this basic legal doctrine, found also in Islamic law, can be traced back in the ancient Greek philosophy. Plato [ 51 ] in his Laws introduces the innovative position that one should not be found accountable for his actions if he is mentally ill, elder, or juvenile.
Despite this, there seems to be a scientific controversy about whether this philosophical conception was actually incorporated into the Athenian legislation or not [ 52 , 53 ]. It was the Romans that adopted the doctrines of the Greek philosophy and transformed them into laws, thus creating the Roman legal system. The Roman Law was the cornerstone on which the common European legal tradition was forged [ 57 ].
This tradition, through colonization, influenced the legal systems of many countries, including Islamic ones. The composition and promulgation of the Lex Duodecim Tabularum were the result of the social struggle between the upper class of the Patricians and the lower class of the Pleibeians. The latter compelled the written codification of the customary law that was implemented and administered by their social rivals, thus limiting their power. The Lex Duodecim Tabularum contained statutes relating to both Jus Publicum that underwent extensive changes with the course of time, and Jus Privatum, which remained relatively unchanged and kept its fundamental role in the Roman jurisprudence [ 58 — 60 ].
Other Roman laws related to homicide, civil liability and thus culpa , and criminal insanity were the Lex Aquila B. Although the legal foundations for the specialized penal treatment of the mentally disabled were laid in the Roman legal system, there is no historical proof that doctors appeared in courts giving testimonies as specialized experts. There is no citation of any kind of collaboration between legal scholars and physicians in the work of Galen of Pergamon — A.
The European legal civilization had to go through the dark era of the Middle Ages, in order to find a convergence point with medicine. It was A. This infamous work was a textbook that helped inquisitors to detect, prosecute and eliminate witches [ 63 ].
“If people realize that dating is simply a normal thing that has been around for centuries that millennial Muslims have come up with to make the rules lax for ourselves. Islam in him than I do in some “born Muslim” boys and men I know. I know I will be tested in the future for the things I've allowed myself to be lenient. A non-Muslim citizen is judged in religious issues by the laws of his own faith. .. the rule of law is established as a principle, so is the concept of the right of man. is insufficient to treat these corrupted people because I was more lenient.  Known as “hijri” date, on which the Islāmīc calendar is based; from the time.
Traditional theory of Islamic jurisprudence recognizes four sources of sharia: Classical jurisprudence was elaborated by private religious scholars , largely through legal opinions fatwas issued by qualified jurists muftis. It was historically applied in sharia courts by ruler-appointed judges , who dealt mainly with civil disputes and community affairs. In the modern era, traditional laws in the Muslim world have been widely replaced by statutes inspired by European models.
Physical relations are simply a choice.
In addition, Muslim citizens must adhere to Islamic law - Shariah. If a Muslim citizen commits a religious violation, he is judged according to Islamic law. A non-Muslim citizen is judged in religious issues by the laws of his own faith.
10 Things That are Restricted in Saudi Arabia
Data sharing is not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analyzed during the current study. Islam is the dominant religion in about 56 countries around the globe, and has more than 1. At the dawn of its historical course and at its moral and ethical core, Islam introduced many interesting and innovative beliefs concerning the mentally ill. Islam underlines the moral necessity for the protection and care of the vulnerable individuals, as dictated by God himself. This strange admixture is reflected upon the status of the mental health services and corresponding legislation found in the different countries of the Islamic world. Islam is a monotheistic religion, and its founder is the prophet Muhammad, who was born in A.
Islam, mental health and law: a general overview
The experiences of Muslim women Arabic: Additional influences include pre-Islamic cultural traditions; secular laws, which are fully accepted in Islam so long as they do not directly contradict Islamic precepts;  religious authorities, including government-controlled agencies such as the Indonesian Ulema Council and Turkey's Diyanet ;  and spiritual teachers, which are particularly prominent in Islamic mysticism or Sufism. There are four sources of influence under Islam for Muslim women. The first two, the Quran and Hadiths, are considered primary sources, while the other two are secondary and derived sources that differ between various Muslim sects and schools of Islamic jurisprudence. The secondary sources of influence include ijma , qiyas and, in forms such as fatwa , ijtihad. Women in Islam are provided a number of guidelines under Quran and hadiths , as understood by fiqh Islamic jurisprudence as well as of the interpretations derived from the hadith that were agreed upon by majority of Sunni scholars as authentic beyond doubt based on hadith studies. During his life, Muhammad married nine or eleven women depending upon the differing accounts of who were his wives. In Arabian culture , marriage was generally contracted in accordance with the larger needs of the tribe and was based on the need to form alliances within the tribe and with other tribes. Virginity at the time of marriage was emphasised as a tribal honour. The title of the sura derives from the numerous references to women throughout the chapter, including verses and
British Broadcasting Corporation Home. Take not life, which God has made sacred, except by way of justice and law.
Although claiming the people, and Seljuqs during night later in, tribal relations with other two. During night to Egypt, when used in education changed immensely.
Is Dating as a Muslim Ever Okay?
Gilla K Shapiro, Abortion law in Muslim-majority countries: Nevertheless, a holistic understanding of the Islamic position remains under-researched. Although Islamic jurisprudence does not encourage abortion, there is no direct biblical prohibition. Positions on abortion are notably variable, and many religious scholars permit abortion in particular circumstances during specific stages of gestational development. It is generally agreed that the least blameworthy abortion is when the life of the pregnant woman is threatened and when days have not lapsed; however, there is remarkable heterogeneity in regards to other circumstances e. This study secondly conducted a cross-country examination of abortion rights in Muslim-majority countries. A predominantly conservative approach was found whereby 18 of 47 countries do not allow abortion under any circumstances besides saving the life of the pregnant woman. Discursive elements that may enable policy development in Muslim-majority countries as well as future research that may enhance the study of abortion rights are discussed. Particularly, more lenient abortion laws may be achieved through disabusing individuals that the most authoritative texts unambiguously oppose abortion, highlighting more lenient interpretations that exist in certain Islamic legal schools, emphasizing significant actors that support abortion, and being mindful of policy frames that will not be well-received in Muslim-majority countries. A cross-country examination of abortion rights in Muslim-majority countries illustrates a conservative approach in many countries albeit substantial diversity. Islamic positions on abortion are variable depending on the circumstances of the pregnancy and stage of gestational development.
Women in Islam
Есть математическая гарантия, что рано или поздно ТРАНСТЕКСТ отыщет нужный пароль. - Простите. - Шифр не поддается взлому, - сказал он безучастно. Не поддается. Сьюзан не могла поверить, что это сказал человек, двадцать семь лет работавший с шифрами.
Надеюсь. - Месье Клушар. - Беккер улыбнулся и достал из кармана пиджака ручку. - Я хотел бы составить официальную жалобу городским властям. Вы мне поможете.
У тебя неверные данные. - Ты это уже. - Вот. Она нахмурилась. - Ты не заметил ничего .
Он улыбнулся, стараясь ее успокоить. - С Дэвидом все в порядке. Просто мне приходится быть крайне осторожным. В тридцати футах от них, скрытый за стеклом односторонней видимости Грег Хейл стоял у терминала Сьюзан. Черный экран. Хейл бросил взгляд на коммандера и Сьюзан, затем достал из кармана бумажник, извлек из него крохотную каталожную карточку и прочитал то, что было на ней написано.
Еще раз убедившись, что Сьюзан и коммандер поглощены беседой, Хейл аккуратно нажал пять клавиш на клавиатуре ее компьютера, и через секунду монитор вернулся к жизни.
Беккер искал какой-нибудь перекресток, любой выход, но с обеих сторон были только запертые двери. Теперь он уже бежал по узкому проходу. Шаги все приближались. Беккер оказался на прямом отрезке, когда вдруг улочка начала подниматься вверх, становясь все круче и круче. Он почувствовал боль в ногах и сбавил скорость.
Дальше бежать было некуда.Tackling the taboos around Muslim dating - ITV News